1. Experience with Inspection in Ultralarge-Scale Developments. Glen W. Russel. IEEE Software, January 1991, pages 25-31.
2. An Introduction to Proving the Correctness of Programs. Sidney L. Hantler and James C. King. ACM Computing Surveys, September 1976, pp 331-353.
The technique described here is sometimes called "symbolic execution." It can be partially automated; the difficult parts to automate are simplfication of predicates and checking of assertions (which are really the same thing: an assertion is true if it simplifies to TRUE.) Although this approach to program verification is seldom practical in itself, some reasoning in this style is used in many other verification techniques, so you should understand it.
3. The Larch Family of Specification Languages. J.V. Guttag, J.J. Horning, and J.M. Wing. IEEE Software, September 1985, pp. 24-36.
There are really two things I want you to get out of this paper. First, the algebraic specification style described in this paper is fairly representative of modern specification methodology, especially when the implementation is object-based or object-oriented.
Second, and more fundamental, is the two-tiered approach. It is very difficult to devise a specification language that is, on the one hand, "clean" enough for formal reasoning, and on the other hand is practical for describing program or module specifications. Larch side-steps this problem by giving specifications at two different levels. The "shared language" specifications are as simple and clean as possible; good for formal reasoning but lousy for describing program interfaces. The "interface language" specfications contain the nitty-gritty that is necessary to describe program interfaces. Gluing these two together is an important concept, and it is not limited to algebraic specifications like Larch. The important idea is to not try to make one kind of specification serve both purposes, but rather to tie together two kinds of specification, each of which is suited to its purpose.
4. The Model Checker SPIN. Gerard J. Holzmann. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 23(5), May 1997.
While directly proving the correctness of a paper is seldom practical, it is often possible to prove useful properties about models that have been constructed specifically for that purpose. Even though verification of the model does not guarantee that the code is correct, finding and correcting bugs in such a model is much, much easier than finding and correcting the corresponding bugs in code. One of the areas in which this approach has been most useful is verification of concurrency properties (e.g., absence of deadlock, mutual exclusion) in finite-state models of concurrent processes. Several different kinds of models of techniques have been used for this purpose; the tool SPIN uses one of the conceptually simpler approaches, which makes it a good introduction to the field. Also, it is among the most mature and practically useful of the existing finite-state verification tools.
5. Towards a Method of Programming with Assertions. David S. Rosenblum. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering.
There are really two aspects to this paper. Part of it describes an assertion checking system called APP, which is similar to (but rather simpler and more limited than) the ANNA assertion language for Ada that preceded it. (The Gnu assertion-checking package nana [see nana user manual] provides functionality roughly equivalent to APP, and unlike APP is freely available for anyone to download. )
The second part of the paper, and in some ways the more interesting part, is the experience report on using APP --- what kinds of assertions seemed to be useful. Although the evidence reported here is really anecdotal, it provides some useful insight into the way assertion packages can be used in practice.
Basic definitions and distinctions: Correctness, reliability, robustness, safety
An overview of software development processes from the perspective of quality assurance
Mostly Fagan code inspections, but also a brief look at active design reviews as described by Parnas and Weiss, and phased inspections as described by Knight and Myer. [Had trouble with the PDF format? We can troubleshoot later, but here's a PostScript version for now.]
Floyd- and Hoare-style verification with preconditions and postconditions; algebraic specification; two-tier specifications a la Larch. (The notes on these slides are not very complete, particularly toward the end. )
An introduction to the basic ideas of temporal logic model checking, such as provided by tools like Spin. (Sorry, just slides for now with no additional notes.)
I apparently had a revision control problem and wiped out an earlier version of this page to which the process algebra slides had already been linked.
This is the first of (at least) two lectures on testing. Additional lectures will cover more on test oracles, test automation, and specification-based test selection. Some of the material in this lecture was written or revised by Mauro Pezze` of Politecnico di Milano.
Just a short introduction ... doing the exercises should be more interesting than listening to the lecture.
The first part of these slides largely talks about the category-partition method as an example of specification-based partition testing at the system or subsystem level. The second part raises issues in integration testing of object-oriented programs --- without providing much in the way of solutions.
Documents are in PDF* format.
*PDF (portable document format) version 2, which requires Acrobat Reader or Acrobat Exchange version 3. The Reader is available for several platforms (Solaris Sparc and x86, Linux, Mac OS, Windows 3.1, 95 and NT, HPUX, etc.) free from Adobe, http://www.adobe.com.
If you try to view a PDF document with Netscape, and it reports an error in the file, there is a good chance that the Netscape PDF plugin is an old version (Acrobat version 2 or 1). You can get the newest plugin from Adobe. If you can't install it in Netscape, you can still save the file and then read the PDF document within Acrobat version 3. And if you still have problems, please let me know.
Here is a tip from Chris Schleicher on configuring Netscape, in a reply to a student:
>When I select "Software Inspections" on Michal Young's web page for cis >610 > http://www.cs.uoregon.edu/~michal/Classes/W98/ >I get a window saying Acrobat Reader 2.1 and then an error window with the >message > There was an error processing a page. The document >may be damaged (9). Netscape doesn't necessarily use the same version as the one in your path. Here it's using the old version. To fix this, go into Netscape Edit | Preferences | Navigator | Applications and find the association for PDF files. Change the application from /local/apps/AcroRead/bin/acroread %s to /local/bin/acroread %s to make Netscape do the right thing.
Last update: 5 January 1998
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